Since their discovery, viruses have been the subject of controversy. Even its origin is not clear and it is debated between three theories: relics of pre-cellular life, intracellular “parasites” or genes that escaped cells and were united with functional units (1). Although viruses have been known for their ability to generate diseases such as human immunodeficiency syndrome, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) or hepatitis, it is clear that they are a source of genetic diversity and have allowed the evolutionary processes of almost all aive beings (2).
Despite the advances in science, many of the diseases caused by viruses are untreated or non-curative. For this reason, treatments are constantly being sought that are curative or that impact the evolution of the disease (3) and even more so at the time of this pandemic due to COVID-19.
Beehive products have shown interesting and important effects for various viral infections, then their mechanisms of action and applications will be reviewed.
Its ability to control the passage of the virus into the intracellular environment, decrease its replication and limit the number of infected cells has been documented on different viruses (4). Effects of bee venom on different viruses can be seen in the next table:
Propolis has been evaluated on some types of viruses showing relevant antiviral effects:
Bee honey has antiviral effects:
The effect of royal jelly against the herpes simplex virus has been evaluated. Royal jelly inhibits viral replication and reduces the expression of viral proteins (24).
It can be seen that the mechanisms are diverse, which opens the possibility of using the products of the beehive in a large number of viral infections. Clinical experience has shown that the reduction of viral load, symptomatic intensity, quality of life, and a cure are achieved in most viral infections.
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