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Estado del arte de la apiterapia. Pasado y presente

La apiterapia es un sistema terapéutico que se basa en el uso de los productos de las abejas (miel, veneno, propóleo, jalea real, cera, polen y sus combinaciones) con el fin de prevenir y tratar diferentes enfermedades (1). En este artículo se presenta un resumen de la historia de la apiterapia así como los resultados de series de casos de pacientes atendidos con apiterapia desde la perspectiva de diferentes sistemas médicos.

Breve historia de la apiterapia

La historia de la apiterapia, al igual que la historia de la medicina es interesante, compleja y va de la mano de los desarrollos conceptuales sobre la salud y la enfermedad; ellos son dependientes, a su vez, de las definiciones científicas, aspectos culturales y sociales. La determinación del momento exacto en el cual comenzaron a ser utilizados los productos de la colmena con alguna finalidad terapéutica no es simple. Se reconoce que la relación de los seres humanos con las abejas y su cultivo se remonta incluso antes del desarrollo de la escritura. Objetos recolectados de etapas antiguas de la edad de piedra muestran restos de cera en su interior y pinturas rudimentarias muestran actividades de extracción de la miel, probando el uso de productos de la colmena (2).

En Mesopotamia, hacia el año 4.000 a.C., la miel ya era utilizada con distintos fines. La mitología sumeria atribuía a la miel la capacidad para prolongar la vida y era un regalo sagrado de los dioses (3). En Egipto las abejas eran consideradas sagradas y resultado de las lágrimas del dios Ra (dios sol) derramadas sobre la tierra. Esta naturaleza divina hacía que los productos de la colmena fueran utilizados en rituales mágicos y religiosos (4). En el papiro de Ebers, uno de los tratados médicos más antiguos conocidos, la miel de abejas se describía en el tratamiento de heridas y como base para la preparación de ungüentos y bebidas curativas con otros ingredientes como la cerveza y ricino; la evidencia histórica disponible de los papiros recuperados describen el uso de la miel también para el manejo de enfermedades respiratorias con tos y en enfermedades oftalmológicas caso en el cual se utilizaba su mezcla con la cera (5). Existen también referencias sobre el uso de los productos de la colmena (principalmente de la miel) en los asentamientos hebreos, su vinculación con lo sagrado se encuentra plasmado en los antiguos textos de la Biblia cristiana y la Torá de los judíos.

Hipócrates, griego y padre de la medicina occidental, entendió los beneficios de la miel y los demás productos de la colmena en el tratamiento de las enfermedades. La miel, desde su entendimiento, tenía poderes curativos que incluso acompañaban al enfermo hasta el más allá del mundo; la cultura popular menciona que en su tumba las abejas construyeron una columna de miel y cera curativa (6). Galeno en sus estudios sobre la utilidad de los alimentos, encontró describió la utilidad de los productos de la colmena y lo utilizó en el tratamiento del emperador (7).

En la India antigua también se desarrolló una importante doctrina médica. Los practicantes de esta medicina fueron los primeros en describir una característica básica y reconocida en el mundo occidental contemporáneo: existen diversos tipos de miel de abejas y cada uno de ellos posee propiedades particulares en el tratamiento de las enfermedades. Ellos describen al menos 8 tipos distintos de miel. Los demás productos de la colmena también son utilizados en este sistema médico y muestran utilidades interesantes. La jalea real, polen de abejas, veneno de abejas, larvas también eran utilizados, aunque en una escala menor a la de la miel. Sus usos eran múltiples entre ellos el control de infecciones como la infección por virus herpes, alteraciones del tránsito intestinal, infertilidad, disfunción eréctil, cáncer, infecciones virales y bacterianas, envejecimiento y enfermedades pulmonares (8).

Los textos antiguos de medicina tradicional china exponen la utilidad del uso de la picadura de las abejas en el tratamiento de varias enfermedades, especialmente para el control de las afecciones dolorosas e inflamatorias desde hace más de 4.000 años (9).

Los productos de la colmena son descritos en los libros de materia médica china:

Durante la edad media ocurrió el olvido relativo de los conceptos sobre el uso de los productos de la colmena que se recupero durante el renacimiento. La importancia de las abejas en la época del renacimiento si bien no fue descrita en textos científicos si se plasmó en el arte (13).

La primera y segunda guerra mundial fueron espacio para retomar conocimientos ancestrales. Durante ellas la miel y los propóleos fueron utilizadas en el manejo de heridas para evitar la infección. En 1933, el Dr. Bodog F. Beck, médico de origen húngaro, publicó un tratado sobre la aplicación del veneno de abejas en el reumatismo (14).

Es claro que en la actualidad el entendimiento de la apiterapia se inscribe en los conceptos médicos vigentes sobre la causa de las enfermedades. En la época contemporánea gracias a los avances en el estudio de la biología molecular y genética ha sido posible entender los diferentes mecanismos a través de los cuales actúan los productos de la colmena. También existen ya, varios ensayos clínicos que aportan un importante cuerpo de evidencia científica para los usos de la apiterapia.

Se exploran a continuación los resultados de varias series de casos en los cuales se ha aplicado la apiterapia desde diferentes sistemas médicos que dan cuenta del entendimiento actual de esta terapia.

Medicina tradicional china. Síndrome bi/deficiencia yin de riñón
Lumbago crónico

Características de los pacientes:

  • 20 pacientes, 75% hombres
  • Sin antecedente quirúrgico
  • Evolución de 2 a 4 años
  • Edad promedio 55 años
  • Manejo previo con antiinflamatorio no esteroideos
  • Diagnóstico imagenológico y por medicina tradicional china

Tratamiento instaurado

  • Veneno de abejas 0,1 mg dluidos en 0,9 ml de solución salina. 1 Sesión por semana x 12
  • Se realizó la aplicación en puntos de acupuntura: Du3, V23 bilateral, punto ashi lumbar bilateral (2 a 6), V40-bilateral, R3-bilateral. Se aplicaron 0,05-0,1 ml por punto
  • Miel con jalea real, 10 gramos por dia.

Desenlaces:

Medicina neuralterapéutica. Artrosis

Características de los pacientes:

  • 80 pacientes, 80% mujeres
  • Sin antecedente quirúrgico
  • Evolución de 2 a 5 años
  • Edad promedio 60 años
  • Manejo previo con antiinflamatorio no esteroideos y terapia física
  • Diagnóstico imagenológico y clínica. 6 a 8 articulaciones afectadas por paciente, la más frecuente fueron las rodillas

Tratamiento instaurado

  • Veneno de abejas 0,5 mg dluidos en 2 ml de procaína. 1 sesión cada 15 días. 16 sesiones. 0,1 a 0,2 ml aplicados por punto
  • Miel con jalea real, 10 gramos por día.
  • Polen de abejas. 10 gramos por día
  • Miel con propóleo. 10 gramos por día

Desenlaces:

Medicina funcional-sueroterapia. fibromialgia


Características de los pacientes:

  • 40 pacientes, 95% mujeres
  • Evolución de 1 a 5 años
  • Edad promedio 44 años
  • Manejo previo con antiinflamatorio no esteroideos
  • Diagnóstico clínico y por laboratorio

Tratamiento instaurado:

  • Vitamina C IV 15 gramos + veneno de abejas 0,6 mg en 500 ml. 2 veces por semana. Tratamiento por 3 meses.
  • Coenzima q10 oral una vez por día
  • Jalea real 500 mg cada día
  • Miel+propóleo 10 gramos cada día

Desenlaces:



Medicina occidental. Infección por VIH/SIDA

Características de los pacientes:

  • 15 pacientes, 80% hombres
  • Evolución de 1 a 3 años
  • Edad promedio 25 años
  • Manejo farmacológico con 4 medicamentos
  • Pacientes con estadio B2 y B3 de la enfermedad

Tratamiento instaurado:

  • Veneno de abejas 1 mg diluidos en 4 ml de solución salina. IV, una vez por semana. 6 meses
  • Miel con jalea real, 10 gramos por día.
  • Extracto etanólico de propóleo, 20 ml por día

Desenlaces:

Medicina estética. Celulitis

Características de los pacientes:

  • 10 pacientes, 100% mujeres
  • Sin antecedente quirúrgico
  • Edad promedio 32 años
  • En manejo médico

Tratamiento instaurado:

  • Veneno de abejas 0,3 mg diluidos en 0,7 ml de solución salina. 1 sesión cada semana x 8, luego 1 sesión cada 15 días x 8. Se aplicó 0,05-0,1 ml por punto
  • Miel con jalea real, 10 gramos por día.

Desenlaces:



Referencias bibliográficas

1.          Jagua-Gualdron A. Pasado, presente y futuro de la apiterapia. Primera ed. Bogotá D.C.: Sociedad Colombiana de Apiterapia; 2017.

2.          Pager H. Cave Paintings Suggest Honey Hunting Activities in Ice Age Times. Bee World [Internet]. 1976 Jan 31;57(1):9–14. Available from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/0005772X.1976.11097580

3.          Christman J. The Gilgamesh Complex: The Quest for Death Transcendence and the Killing of Animals. Soc Anim [Internet]. 2008 Oct 1;16(4):297–315. Available from: http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/10.1163/156853008×357649

4.          Kristky G. The Tears of Re. Beekeeping in Ancient Egypt. Primera. New York: Oxford University Press; 2015. 131 p.

5.          Leek FF. Some Evidence of Bees and Honey in Ancient Egypt. Bee World [Internet]. 1975 Jan 31;56(4):141–63. Available from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/0005772X.1975.11097564

6.          Jouanna J. Greek Medicine from Hippocrates to Galen. Stud Anc Med. 2012;

7.          Wilkins J. Galen on food. Vol. 52, The Classical Review. 2002. p. 275–6.

8.          Garodia P, Ichikawa H, Malani N, Sethi G, Aggarwal BB. From ancient medicine to modern medicine: Ayurvedic concepts of health and their role in inflammation and cancer. Vol. 5, Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology. 2007. p. 25–37.

9.          Dong J. The Relationship between Traditional Chinese Medicine and Modern Medicine. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med [Internet]. 2013;2013:153148. Available from: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3745867&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract

10.        Leung AY. Traditional Toxicity Documentation of Chinese Materia Medica???An Overview. Vol. 34, Toxicologic Pathology. 2006. p. 319–26.

11.        Chang H-M, But PP-H. Pharmacology and applications of chinese materia medica [Internet]. Vol. 2, World Scientific. 2001. p. 807–11. Available from: http://books.google.com/books?id=DyIlwre-TUUC&pgis=1

12.        Dong-Lu B. Traditional Chinese Materia Medica – A Retrospect and Prospect. Mom Inst Oswald Cruz. 1991;86(Suppl. II):1–4.

13.        Johnson G a. Renaissance art : a very short introduction. Very short Introd. 2005;157 p.

14.        Kim CMH. Apitherapy – Bee Venom Therapy. In: Biotherapy – History, Principles and Practice [Internet]. 2013. p. 77–112. Available from: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-94-007-6585-6_4

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